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1. In April 2014 the Prime Minister commissioned an internal review of the Muslim Brotherhood, including its origins, ideology, record in and out of government; and its organisation and activities in the UK and abroad.
2. The review comprises a classified report to the Prime Minister. However, the Prime Minister made clear that the main findings of the review would be made public. These findings are reproduced from the Parliamentary record and are set out on the following page.
3. The Government is committed to developing a much better understanding of groups which have been or are alleged to have been associated with extremism and terrorism, and has made further resources available for that purpose. Research into the Muslim Brotherhood will continue. The subject matter is complex, with significant domestic and foreign policy implications.
4. The review was conducted by two of the UK's most senior and expert civil servants: Sir John Jenkins, until recently HM Ambassador to Riyadh, assessed the Muslim Brotherhood and affiliates overseas; Charles Farr, at the time of writing Director General of the Office for Security and Counter Terrorism in the Home Office considered the history, activities, ideology and influence of the Muslim Brotherhood network and affiliates in the UK. The National Security Adviser subsequently led work across government to consider, where appropriate, the review's policy implications.
5. In preparing their reports, the authors consulted widely. Sir John Jenkins visited twelve
countries and met representatives of governments, political movements, religious leaders,
academics and other independent commentators. Information was provided by many
Foreign & Commonwealth Office posts and our security and intelligence agencies. Both
authors consulted representatives of the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamist movements
in the UK and overseas and invited interested parties to make written contributions. They
consulted a wide range of academic and online sources in English, Arabic and other
6. The review was completed in July 2014 and that is the cut off date for the material. The
principal focus for the review was the Muslim Brotherhood in the Arab world, the UK and
parts of western Europe. In preparing its policy response to the Review the Government has
continued to assess developments in the MB in Egypt and elsewhere, including through the
new Extremism Analysis Unit.
7. Sir John Jenkins examined the development, ideology and structures of the Muslim
Brotherhood, historically and through its foundational writings
Foundational ideology and structures
8. The Muslim Brotherhood was established in Egypt in 1928. The founder and first Supreme
Guide (spiritual leader), Hassan al Banna, called for the religious reformation of individual
Muslims, the progressive moral purification of Muslim societies and their eventual political
unification in a Caliphate under sharia law.
Al Banna and others argued that secularisation and westernisation were at the root of all
contemporary problems of Arab and Muslim societies, and that nationalism was not the
9. From its foundation the Muslim Brotherhood organised itself into a secretive 'cell' structure,
with an elaborate induction and education programme for new members. It relied heavily on
group solidarity and peer pressure to maintain discipline. This clandestine, centralised and
hierarchical structure persists to this day.
The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt
10.Sir John Jenkins traced the history of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt through its
dissolution by Nasser in 1954 (which led to the arrest, torture and execution of many
members and the co-option of others) to its rehabilitation under Sadat 20 years later. In the
1970s the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt expanded, established a foothold within the
Egyptian political system and took a firm hold on student organisations, professional
syndicates and trades unions. It also developed a large, sophisticated and often clandestine
network of commercial enterprises, small businesses and charities.
11.Sir John considered the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood's experience in power - through the
vehicle of The Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) - in Egypt between 2011 and 2013, noting
the range of views on the complex interplay of events. He concluded that the Egyptian
Muslim Brotherhood did not do enough to demonstrate political moderation or a commitment
to democratic values, had failed to convince Egyptians of their competence or good
intentions, and had subsequently struggled to draw lessons for what its failure in Egypt
meant for its future.
The Muslim Brotherhood internationally
12.From at least the 1950s the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood also developed an international
network, within and beyond the Islamic world. Europe became an important base for the
growing Muslim Brotherhood global network. International Muslim Brotherhood
organisations received financial and other support from the Gulf. National chapters
developed individual concerns and tactical approaches, but shared a common ideology.
The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood's Supreme Guide remained, at least in theory, the
spiritual leader of the movement as a whole. The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood dominated
(and continues to dominate) the International Guidance Bureau, whose influence has waxed
and waned. In the 1950s, the 1970s and again today, a dispersed international presence
has provided the means for the Muslim Brotherhood to regroup and recover from setbacks in
Egypt and elsewhere.
13.Sir John tracked the complex historical relationships between Muslim Brotherhood chapters
and governments in the Islamic world. In some Arab states the Muslim Brotherhood is now
a proscribed organisation. In others, it is legal and politically active. In Tunisia, a party
originally inspired by the Muslim Brotherhood has played a positive role as part of an
emerging democratic process.
14.The Hamas founding charter claims they are the Palestinian branch of the Muslim
Brotherhood and the Muslim Brotherhood treat them as such. In the past ten years support
for Hamas (including in particular funding) has been an important priority for the MB in Egypt
and the MB international network.
15.The wider international network of the Muslim Brotherhood now performs a range of
functions. It promotes Muslim Brotherhood ideology (including through communications
platforms), raises and invests funds, and provides a haven for members of the Brotherhood
who have left their country of origin to continue promoting Brotherhood activity.
The Muslim Brotherhood, violence and terrorism
16.Sir John assessed views in the Muslim Brotherhood about violence and terrorism, and the
use of violence and terrorism in the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and other national
chapters. He found a complex and situational relationship, in a region where political
violence was and is common. He noted that:
- Hassan al Banna accepted the political utility of violence, and the Brotherhood conducted
attacks, including political assassinations and attempted assassinations against Egyptian
state targets and both British and Jewish interests during his lifetime;
- influenced by his personal experiences in 1940s Egypt, in the US and in prison under
Nasser, the key Muslim Brotherhood ideologue, Sayyid Qutb, drew on the thought of the
Indo-Pakistani theorist, Abul Ala'a Mawdudi, the founder of the Islamist party Jamaat-eIslami,
to promote the doctrine of takfirism. This has consistently been understood as a
doctrine permitting the stigmatisation of other Muslims as infidel or apostate, and of
existing states as unIslamic, and the use of extreme violence in the pursuit of the perfect
Islamic society. Qutb argued that a self-appointed vanguard of true believers was
essential to create an authentically Islamic community and state. Jihad was neither
solely spiritual nor defensive. Many contemporary Islamic states were regarded as 'UnIslamic';
confrontation with their 'unjust' rulers was legitimate and inevitable.
- Qutb's views have at times been reinterpreted by some in the Muslim Brotherhood. But
they have never been institutionally disowned. They continue to be explicitly endorsed
by many senior Muslim Brotherhood figures, including leaders of the Egyptian Muslim
Brotherhood. They remain central to the Muslim Brotherhood's formational curriculum.
Qutb's thinking led to a resurgence of takfiri ideology, and has inspired many terrorist
organisations, including the assassins of Sadat, Al Qaida and its offshoots. Qutb was
executed in Egypt in 1966;
- in return for freedom to reorganise politically and socially in Egypt in the 1970s, the
Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood officially disowned violence;
- however, the Muslim Brotherhood at all levels have repeatedly defended Hamas attacks
against Israel, including the use of suicide bombers and the killing of civilians. The
Muslim Brotherhood facilitate funding for Hamas. The leadership of the Egyptian Muslim
Brotherhood, its Jordanian counterpart and Hamas are closely connected. There are
wider links with Muslim Brotherhood affiliates throughout the region. Senior members of
the Muslim Brotherhood routinely use virulent, anti-Semitic language;
- senior Muslim Brotherhood figures and associates have justified attacks against coalition
forces in Iraq and Afghanistan;
- some members of the Muslim Brotherhood (mainly in non Muslim countries) have
strongly criticised Al Qaida. But leaders in the Muslim Brotherhood have claimed that the
attacks on 09/11 were fabricated by the US, and that the so called 'war on terrorism' is a
pretext to attack Muslims.
17.Sir John concluded on this complex subject that, for the most part, the Muslim Brotherhood
have preferred non violent incremental change on the grounds of expediency, often on the
basis that political opposition will disappear when the process of Islamisation is complete.
But they are prepared to countenance violence – including, from time to time, terrorism -
where gradualism is ineffective. They have deliberately, wittingly and openly incubated and
sustained an organisation - Hamas - whose military wing has been proscribed in the UK as a
terrorist organisation (and which has been proscribed in its entirety by other countries). The
writings of the leading Muslim Brotherhood ideologue have been used to legitimise AQrelated
terror. Some leading Muslim Brotherhood members and supporters have endorsed
attacks on western forces
18.Sir John concluded that it was not possible to reconcile these views with the claim made by
the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in their evidence to the review that "the Muslim
Brotherhood has consistently adhered to peaceful means of opposition, renouncing all forms
of violence throughout its existence".
The Muslim Brotherhood in the UK
19.Charles Farr examined in detail the Muslim Brotherhood's development, ideology and
activities in the UK.
20.He found that organisations associated with the Muslim Brotherhood were established in the
UK (and elsewhere in Europe) over fifty years ago. They mainly comprised exiles and
overseas students. In the UK these organisations worked very closely with like minded
counterparts from South Asia, established to promote the work of Abu A'la Mawdudi and
representing Jama'at-e-Islami. They regarded themselves as a single Islamic movement.
21.In their earliest phase these organisations were not politically active in the UK. Many of their
members assumed they would return to their country of origin. They wanted to avoid social
and political engagement with a non Islamic country which (following advice from Hassan al
Banna) they regarded as potentially corrupting. Their priorities were to recruit and educate
new members (through study groups) and support the Muslim Brotherhood in the Arab
22.In the late 1980s and early 1990s the Muslim Brotherhood and its associates developed a
new strategy of domestic engagement in western countries. Key issues (notably Iraq and
Palestine) had already mobilised settled second generation UK Muslim community
organisations. The Muslim Brotherhood faced a significant challenge for community support
from militant Salafists who had returned to the UK after fighting in Afghanistan and who
regarded the Brotherhood as ineffective. But the Muslim Brotherhood was cautious: the
stated purpose of engagement was not just to promote the Muslim Brotherhood overseas
but also to preserve the autonomy of Muslim communities in the UK.
23.In the 1990s the Muslim Brotherhood and their associates established public facing and
apparently national organisations in the UK to promote their views. None were openly
identified with the Muslim Brotherhood and membership of the Muslim Brotherhood
remained (and still remains) a secret. But for some years the Muslim Brotherhood shaped
the new Islamic Society of Britain (ISB), dominated the Muslim Association of Britain (MAB)
and played an important role in establishing and then running the Muslim Council of Britain
(MCB). MAB became politically active, notably in connection with Palestine and Iraq, and
promoted candidates in national and local elections. The MCB sought and obtained a
dialogue with Government.
MAB were active partners in a security dialogue with the police and collaborated with the
police in ejecting Abu Hamza, the militant Salafist preacher, from a mosque in north London.
The MAB have participated in the governance of this mosque ever since.
24.In 2009 the then government suspended dialogue with the MCB after an office holder signed
a public document which appeared to condone violence against any country supporting an
arms blockade against Gaza. There has been no substantive dialogue since then between
any part of the Brotherhood in the UK and Government.
25.Mr Farr found that as of mid-2014 the Brotherhood in the UK comprised a range of
organisations, loosely associated together but without common command and control or a
single leader. Some of these organisations had emerged in and from the UK. Others
represented third country Brotherhood organisations using London as a base for overseas
activities. The most senior member of the Muslim Brotherhood permanently resident in the
UK told the review team that he coordinated some Muslim Brotherhood international activity,
but not Muslim Brotherhood activity in this country.
26.The Arab Spring and its aftermath led to the departure of some overseas Muslim
Brotherhood-inspired groups back to their countries of origin (notably Tunisia and Libya). In
2013 small numbers of Muslim Brothers arrived from Egypt and, later, from the UAE. As of
July 2014 the Egyptian Brotherhood ran some of its English and Arab speaking MB
communications from London and has been supported here by several lobbying and protest
movements, including R4BIA and British Egyptians for Democracy. As of July 2014
members of Al Islah, the Emirati chapter of the Muslim Brotherhood, resident in the UK were
linked to several UK based charities in turn associated with the UK-based Emirates Media
and Studies Centre.
27.The MAB appears much less active than it was between 2002 and 2006. It has little political
profile and no obvious connection with groups which have recently arrived from Egypt or the
UAE. In 2014 MAB claimed a membership of just 600 people and maintains eight welfare
houses (first established here in the 1960s) and associated mosques. It has nine UK
branches. MAB has links to the Cordoba Foundation, a think tank which is associated with
the Brotherhood (though claiming to be neither affiliated to the Muslim Brotherhood nor a
lobby organisation for it).
28.Since 2001 the Islamic Society of Britain (ISB) has distanced itself from the Muslim
Brotherhood and Muslim Brotherhood ideology and also from the MCB. The ISB has
consciously set out to try to promote a British Muslim identity and to support British values
and can lay some claim to be the first post Islamist organisation which has emerged from the
UK Brotherhood movement.
29.The military wing of Hamas was proscribed in the UK as a terrorist organisation in 2001 but
Hamas has been active here for over ten years. The EU has had in place an asset freeze
on the whole of Hamas (both its political and military wings).
30.Many Brotherhood groups have raised funds in the UK. A complex network of charities
associated with the Muslim Brotherhood has developed here over many years. Whilst some
of these seem to be raising funds only for the Brotherhood in the UK others have been
linked to Hamas. In 2003 the UK charity Interpal was designated as a terrorist entity by the
US Treasury, primarily on the grounds of alleged links to Hamas. Interpal has been
investigated three times by the Charity Commission in the UK. In 2006 the Charity
Commission found that Interpal was a member of the Union of Good, a wider group of
charities believed to have Hamas links and that in 2003 an Interpal partner was designated
as a terrorist entity under UK law.
The Charity Commission took regulatory action against Interpal in 2009. Though never
publicly acknowledged by the Muslim Brotherhood charities in the UK are an important part
of the Hamas and Brotherhood infrastructure in this country.
31. Muslim Brotherhood organisations in the UK – including charities – are connected to
counterparts elsewhere in Europe. MAB are associated with the Federation of Islamic
Organisations in Europe (FIOE), established by the Muslim Brotherhood in 1989. FIOE
subsequently created the European Council for Fatwa and Research, another pan European
Muslim Brotherhood body, intended to provide religious and social guidance to Muslims
living in Europe.
32.Organisations which were originally associated with Mawdudi and the Jamaat continue to
operate in this country. The UK Islamic Mission (UKIM) runs some fifty mosques. The
Islamic Forum for Europe (IFE) is politically active, in particular in the local authority of Tower
Hamlets, and has supported the Respect political party. Trustees of the large East London
mosque and associated London Muslim Centre are also IFE members.
Ideology and outlook
33.Mr Farr found that groups and people in the UK linked to the Muslim Brotherhood and to the
wider Muslim Brotherhood movement had in the past held out the prospect and ambition of
an Islamic state in this country as elsewhere. But he found that there was no indication that
the Muslim Brotherhood itself still held this view or at least openly promoted an Islamic state
here. In and for the UK – as for other non Muslim countries – the public narrative of the
Muslim Brotherhood focused more on the task of Islamising the individual and community
than the state.
34.In their written submission to the review MAB stated that it supported social integration and
encouraged young people to be active and responsible citizens. There is some evidence
that MAB have tried to do so in specific areas of the country. But as of July 2014 neither
MAB nor other organisations related to the Muslim Brotherhood had clearly and publicly
promoted a vision of Muslims living in this country as integrated British citizens; indeed, in
the course of the preparation of this review MAB accepted that their teaching material has
not been updated to reflect their claimed objectives. Literature in the Muslim Brotherhood
movement in this country continues to reflect some of the concerns of the foundational
Muslim Brotherhood ideology, notably that western society is inherently hostile to Muslim
faith and interests and that Muslims must respond by maintaining their distance and
autonomy. The UK based chairman of Interpal has written openly in support of the death
penalty for homosexuality and stoning to death of married men and women found guilty of
35. Material still being promoted by UKIM as of July 2014 continued to explicitly claim that it is
not possible for an observant Muslim to live under a non-Islamic system of government (and
anticipated the forthcoming 'victory' of Islam over communism, capitalist democracy and
secular materialism). In 2010 a television documentary showed members of the Islamic
Forum for Europe privately advocating sharia law in Tower Hamlets and actively seeking
influence in the Council. In November 2009 the IFE led a petition seeking a directly elected
mayor in Tower Hamlets and the IFE supported Lufter Rahman while he was Mayor.
36.The Muslim Brotherhood has not been linked to terrorist related activity in and against the
UK. The Muslim Brotherhood in the UK (eg MAB) has often condemned terrorist related
activity in the UK associated with al Qai'da.
37.However, in common with the Muslim Brotherhood elsewhere, Muslim Brotherhood-related
organisations and individuals in the UK have openly supported the activities of Hamas.
People associated with the Muslim Brotherhood in the UK have applauded suicide bombing
by Hamas, in some cases against civilians. Hamas terrorist activities have not been publicly
disowned or condemned. Muslim Brotherhood organisations and associates in the UK have
neither openly nor consistently refuted the literature of Brotherhood member Sayyid Qutb
which is known to have inspired people (including in this country) to engage in terrorism.
38.MAB (like the MCB) have consistently opposed programmes by successive Governments to
39.Both Sir John Jenkins and Charles Farr drew the following overarching conclusions from
- the Muslim Brotherhood have promoted a radical, transformative politics, at odds with a
millennium of Islamic jurisprudence and statecraft, in which the reconstruction of individual
identity is the first step towards a revolutionary challenge to established states and a
secularised if socially conservative order;
- the Muslim Brotherhood historically focused on remodelling individuals and communities
through grassroots activism. They have engaged politically where possible. But they have
also selectively used violence and sometimes terror in pursuit of their institutional goals.
Their public narrative – notably in the West - emphasised engagement not violence. But
there have been significant differences between Muslim Brotherhood communications in
English and Arabic;
- there is little evidence that the experience of power in Egypt has caused a rethinking in the
Muslim Brotherhood of its ideology or conduct. UK official engagement with the Egyptian
Muslim Brotherhood produced no discernible change in their thinking. Indeed even by mid
2014 statements from Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood-linked media platforms seem to have
deliberately incited violence;
- much about the Muslim Brotherhood in the UK remains secretive, including membership,
fund raising and educational programmes. But Muslim Brotherhood associates and
affiliates here have at times had significant influence on the largest UK Muslim student
organisation, national organisations which have claimed to represent Muslim communities
(and on that basis have sought and had a dialogue with Government), charities and some
mosques. Though their domestic influence has declined organisations associated with the
Muslim Brotherhood continue to have an influence here which is disproportionate to their
- the Muslim Brotherhood in the UK claimed to act in support of Muslim communities here
and use London as a base for activism elsewhere, notably with other Muslim Brotherhood
organisations in Europe, in Egypt and the occupied Palestinian territories and in the Gulf.
This activity is sometimes secretive, if not clandestine;
- the Muslim Brotherhood have been publicly committed to political engagement in this
country. Engagement with Government has at times been facilitated by what appeared to
be a common agenda against al Qaida and (at least in the UK) militant salafism. But this
engagement did not take account of Muslim Brotherhood support for a proscribed terrorist
group and its views about terrorism which, in reality, were quite different from our own;
- aspects of Muslim Brotherhood ideology and tactics, in this country and overseas, are
contrary to our values and have been contrary to our national interests and our national