Articles and analysis

s200 gary.buschby Dr Gary Busch (June 2020)

With its dependence on raw materials extraction and their export to fund its defence and international ambitions, as well as meet the needs of its people, the Russian economy has been hit by falling prices globally and the impact of global warming, particularly in the multi-time zone vastness that is Siberia

The first signs of the effects of global warming on the economy were the large numbers of explosions in Siberian mines due to the release of methane gas due to global warming after 2017. An explosion in the Severnaya coal mine, in Vorkuta, left four people dead and twenty-six stranded some eight hundred meters below the surface; another explosion, three days later, killed six rescue workers and condemned to death the miners in the inaccessible shaft. A Russian government commission investigating the disaster said that they would authorise the flooding of the mine to extinguish the methane-induced fire. They agreed to flooding it with water and figured that it would take sixty to eighty days to extinguish.


A quick guide to understanding the puzzle (EDGE3)

Edoardo del PrincipeIMG E6202by Edoardo Del Principe MA, with additional material by Arianna Comis MA and Robin Ashby


CSDP Institutional Framework: Agencies and Actors
Key Points in Modern CSDP: Defence Market and Strategies
Active Missions and Operations: EU in Action
European Defence and New Challenges


Around 5,000 EU citizens are currently involved in 6 military and 10 non-military CSDP (Common Security and Defence Policy) missions. But what is it, and why is it important?

The CSDP is the best known part of the European foreign policy and also the most discussed because of the objective it has of preserving peace and long term stability in the EU.

CSDP missions had a key role in the last year's political agenda of the Member States with the failing EU NAVFOR MED Op Sophia in the Mediterranean Sea and EUBAM Libya, tackling the refugees crossing crisis.


By Tatiana Rita de Moraes MA
Tatiana-foto-ver-5Given the pressures, challenges, external threats and feelings of insecurity, will the evolution of the European security system, currently moving towards greater integration, eventually lead to the formation of shared defence or even a "European Army"? Is the latter a practical or politically possibility? (Throughout this paper, EU and Europe now mean the 27 member states – MS - of the European Union after the UK has left at the end of 2020)
Over the last 5 years, rapid steps so far involve the establishment of a European Defense Fund; the development of the Capacity Development Plan to define short, medium and long-term priorities; the adjustment of structures, including greater centralisation of information and a command structure for military operations initially non-executive, the Capacity for Planning and Conducting Military Actions; the Coordinated Annual Defense Review with a view to better coordination between countries; the Common Security and Defence Policy (see paper EDGE3 An introduction to CSDP by Edoardo del Principe) and, finally, the establishment of Permanent Structured Cooperation.


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