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sergei suhhankinOn February 28, Russian Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu announced that their Northern Fleet (NF) had created an additional Air Defense (Voyska Protivovozdushnoy—PVO) division, ensuring that, "the Northern Sea Route [NSR] is now under steady protection", writes Sergei Sukhankin. He noted that protection of the east–west NSR, which follows Russia's northern coast, as well as "the defence of vital industrial objects and protection of Russia's economic interests in the Arctic zone" is a task jointly performed by the NF, the Russian Airborne Forces (Vozdushno-Desantnye Voyska—VDV), the Aerospace Forces (Vozdushno Kosmicheskikh Sil—VKS) and the Special Operations Forces (SOF). Furthermore, by the end of 2020, the NF "will receive more than 180 pieces of military equipment specifically tailored for the harsh conditions of the Arctic region," which will include, among others, "the K-549 Knyaz Vladimir, a Borei-class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine, and the Admiral Flota Kasatonov frigate" as well as "four capital ships, submarines and motor ships" .

Luke Rawlingsimage1 12To update previous timelines from the U K Defence Forum, two fact sheets were prepared in September, 2019 by Luke Rawlings. This one covers the period 2017-18. The same overview is presented because of this.

Overview 2014-18:

Throughout 2014, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the P5+1 held constructive and extensive talks regarding their intentions to create a nuclear deal with Iran. In exchange for this agreement, Iran would receive the lifting of crippling sanctions enforced on the state for many years.

The JCPOA agreement – agreed in 2015 – was thereupon upheld by Iran from the signatory date, and was thereafter continually monitored and verified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Following Donald Trump's inauguration as President of the United States, the ever-present tensions between the U.S. and Iran sparked once more. Iran's pursuit of a ballistic missile program and accusations from the U.S. that the state is supporting terrorist organisations were amongst the many reasons for strain between the two nations.

On the 8th of May, 2018, President Trump announced America's withdrawal from the JCPOA, bringing the stability of the nuclear deal into question.

Since the withdrawal of the United States, sanctions by America have been re-imposed upon the Islamic Republic of Iran, despite all other nations remaining committed to the nuclear deal.

Consequently, Iran have since rejected to abide by particular sections of the JCPOA agreement, notably the stockpiling of enriched uranium.

The JCPOA deal has now reached a crossroads, whereby Iran has demanded that all members of the deal uphold to their commitments to the deal. In turn, Iran will reimpose the restrictions against their nuclear program, as outlined in the deal.

The detailed timeline can be found on the next page

Luke Rawlingsimage1 12To update previous timelines from the U K Defence Forum, two fact sheets were prepared in September, 2019 by Luke Rawlings. This one covers the period May 2015-16. The same overview is presented for both papers because of this.

Overview:
For the timeline 1967- 2010 see U K Defence Forum paper FS62 (updated) by various authors http://www.ukdf.org.uk/assets/downloads/FS62Iran%E2%80%99snuclearplans-progressreportNo6February2011.pdf

For 2011- May 2014 see U K Defence Forum paper FS71 by Elayne Jude, Senior Research Associate which covers both missiles and nuclear materials http://www.ukdf.org.uk/assets/downloads/IranFS7.pdf

Throughout 2014, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the P5+1 held constructive and extensive talks about their intentions to create a nuclear deal with Iran. In exchange for this agreement, Iran would "rewarded" by the lifting of crippling sanctions enforced on the state for many years.

The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) – agreed in 2015 – was upheld by Iran from the signatory date, and was thereafter continually monitored and verified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Following Donald Trump's inauguration as President of the United States, the ever-present tensions between the U.S. and Iran reignited once more. Iran's pursuit of a ballistic missile programme, and accusations from the U.S. that the state is supporting terrorist organisations, were amongst the many reasons for strain between the two nations.

On the 8th May, 2018, President Trump announced America's withdrawal from the JCPOA, bringing the stability of the nuclear deal into question.

Since the withdrawal of the United States, sanctions by America have been re-imposed upon the Islamic Republic of Iran, despite all other nations remaining committed to the nuclear deal.

Consequently, Iran says it won't abide by particular sections of the JCPOA agreement, notably the stockpiling of enriched uranium.

The JCPOA deal was at a crossroads at the time of writing, whereby Iran has demanded that all members of the deal uphold to their commitments to it. In turn, Iran will comply with the restrictions to their nuclear programme, as outlined in the deal.
Key events since our previous paper are on the next page

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